Quantum simulation of U(1) LGTs

Our new proposal for the simulation of U(1) QLMs with Yb atoms was published in PRX Quantum!

June 15, 2023

We introduce a method for quantum simulation of U(1) lattice gauge theories coupled to matter, utilizing alkaline-earth(-like) atoms in state-dependent optical lattices. The proposal enables the study of both gauge and fermionic matter fields without integrating out one of them in one and two dimensions. We focus on a realistic and robust implementation that utilizes the long-lived metastable clock state available in alkaline-earth(-like) atomic species. Starting from an ab initio modeling of the experimental setting, we systematically carry out a derivation of the target U(1) gauge theory. This approach allows us to identify and address conceptual and practical challenges for the implementation of lattice gauge theories that—while pivotal for a successful implementation—have never been rigorously addressed in the literature: those include the specific engineering of lattice potentials to achieve the desired structure of Wannier functions and the subtleties involved in realizing the proper separation of energy scales to enable gauge-invariant dynamics. We discuss realistic experiments that can be carried out within such a platform using the fermionic isotope 173Yb, addressing via simulations all key sources of imperfections, and provide concrete parameter estimates for relevant energy scales in both one- and two-dimensional settings.

Original publication:

Ab Initio Derivation of Lattice-Gauge-Theory Dynamics for Cold Gases in Optical Lattices
Federica Maria Surace, Pierre Fromholz, Nelson Darkwah Oppong, Marcello Dalmonte, Monika Aidelsburger, PRX Quantum 4, 020330 (2023)

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