Optimal Sampling of Dynamical Large Deviations in Two Dimensions via Tensor Networks

April 04, 2023

Phys. Rev. Lett. 130, 147401 (2023)

We use projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) to calculate the large deviation statistics of the dynamical activity of the two-dimensional East model, and the two-dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process (SSEP) with open boundaries, in lattices of up to 40×40 sites. We show that at long times both models have phase transitions between active and inactive dynamical phases. For the 2D East model we find that this trajectory transition is of the first order, while for the SSEP we find indications of a second order transition.

We then show how the PEPS can be used to implement a trajectory sampling scheme capable of directly accessing rare trajectories. We also discuss how the methods described here can be extended to study rare events at finite times.

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