Long-Range Free Fermions: Lieb-Robinson Bound, Clustering Properties, and Topological Phases

February 17, 2023

We consider free fermions living on lattices in arbitrary dimensions, where hopping amplitudes follow a power-law decay with respect to the distance. We focus on the regime where this power is larger than the spatial dimension (i.e., where the single particle energies are guaranteed to be bounded) for which we provide a comprehensive series of fundamental constraints on their equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties. First, we derive a Lieb-Robinson bound which is optimal in the spatial tail. This bound then implies a clustering property with essentially the same power law for the Green’s function, whenever its variable lies outside the energy spectrum. The widely believed (but yet unproven in this regime) clustering property for the ground-state correlation function follows as a corollary among other implications. Finally, we discuss the impact of these results on topological phases in long-range free-fermion systems: they justify the equivalence between Hamiltonian and state-based definitions and the extension of the short-range phase classification to systems with decay power larger than the spatial dimension. Additionally, we argue that all the short-range topological phases are unified whenever this power is allowed to be smaller.

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